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A Fast Learner's Guide to Leadership

Ohio State Leadership Studies

Ohio State University has long been a leading-edge authority on management and leadership.  The Ohio State studies were begun in 1945 to identify the dimensions of leadership behavior.  The staff of Ohio State created a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) which was designed to discover how leaders carry out their activities.  Questions focused on two elements of leadership.   


The first element was tagged Initiating Structure and deals with Task Behavior,  focusing on production issues.

  Example:  measuring production output.


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The second element, Consideration for Workers, focused on the human side of the business and was also called Relationship Behavior

Example:  orientation of new employees


In this way the Ohio State Studies brought together the seemingly juxtaposed Scientific Management and Human Relations Movement.

An important finding of the Ohio State studies was that these two dimensions are independent.  This means that consideration for workers and initiating structure exist simultaneously and in different amounts.    A matrix was created that showed the various combinations and quantities of the elements.


High Consideration

 High Consideration and Low Structure

 High Structure and High Consideration


  Low Consideration

 Low Structure and Low Consideration

 High Structure and Low Consideration



 Low Initiating Structure


 High Initiating Structure





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